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<< 9 / 2017 11 / 2017 >>

EX413 prep: my cheat sheet

2017-10-29 12:56:00

I used Sander van Vugt's EX413/LPI3 video training to prep for my EX413 exam and expanded upon all that information by performing additional research. All in all, I've spent roughly sixty hours over the past five weeks in order to get up to speed. Over the course, over fifty pages of notes were compiled. :)

I've extract all the really important information from my notes, to make this seven-page EX413 cheat sheet. I hope other students find it useful.

Of course, this is NO SUBSTITUTE for doing your own studying and research. Be sure to put in your time, experimenting with all the software you'll need to know. The summary is based on my own knowledge and experience, so I'm sure I've left out lots of things that other people might need to learn.


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RHEL / CentOS / Fedora: NetworkManager or dhclient messing with network and DNS settings?

2017-10-28 08:53:00

In my test networks at home I've often run into issues with NetworkManager or dhclient messing with my network settings, most importantly the DNS configuration. Judging by the hundreds of StackExchange and other forum posts to the same effect, I'm certainly not alone. The fact that this seems like such a newbie problem just makes it all the more annoying. 

I've tried many changes, based on those forum discussions, such as:

And funnily enough, things would still be changing my /etc/resolv.conf every time networking was restarted.

Turns out that I am in fact making a RedHat-newbie mistake! I'm stuck in my old ways of manually micro-managing specific settings of a Linux box. I'm so stuck that I've forgotten my lessons from the RHCSA certification: system-config-network-tui

That tool is great at resetting your network config and overwriting it with the exact setup you want. It helps clear out any settings in odd places that might lead to the continuous mucking about with your settings. 


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PvIB CTF 2017: pen.test event

2017-10-08 10:29:00

the scoreboard

For the third year in a row I competed in the PvIB CTF "Pen.test event", a Jeopardy-style CTF where contestants race to solve puzzles and small hacking challenges. Last year I didn't fare very well at all, but this time aroud things went great! The crowd was nice, my table companions were cool, it was great talking to Anko again and the DJ played awesome beats. I had a blast!

Around 1.5 hours into the competition I went to stretch my legs and get a drink, enjoying the fun we were having. Looking around, sipping on my cola I noticed something odd about the scoreboard! When I'd managed to grab my phonecam I'd already been surpassed by one team, but for at least a short while I'd managed to be in #4 out of the pack of 51 contestants. In the end I finished somewhere halfway , because greater minds than mine managed to keep on scoring points :)

pvib ctf scoreboard

Like before, the challenges were divided into various categories (shown above) and ranked from easy to hard, resulting in different scores per item. I finished the night with 100.000 points (3x10e3, 2x10e4, 1x10e3). I was so, so close on another 10k and 30k points which is why I stuck around until the very last minute!

Web:

  1. I let myself be fooled by the easy Web challenge for way too long. The challenge presented you with a SquirrelMail login page and the task to login and get their email. Assuming it was a veritable SquirrelMail, I assumed no easy software vulnerabilities would be found, so I resorted to password guessing. An hour before the end of the night, Anko asked me "When we start out web pen testing, what are the things you're taught first?". Me: "Well... I reckon... You mean XSS, CSRF and SQL Injection, right?" A: "Absolutely." Me: "Sonuvabitch...". Turns out it was NOT SquirrelMail, just a quick and easy SQLi exercise made to look like it. 
  2. This challenge sent you to an online calculator which would help the voting committee tally their votes, in this case a basic formula line which would return the outcome. Entering gibberish into the line would return a basic Python EVAL failure. Turns out that it was possible to run OS-commands through the EVAL calculation line, which let me list the remote files and to grab the required flag.
  3. Both this exercise and #2 were a bit slow to respond in my browser, so I turned to the Lynx text-based browser. This foregoes all CSS, which was being loaded from the Internet. This time around we were supposed to hack a voting system, to find out the vote-total for each candidate. I noticed that it was based on a JSP that got included by URL, so I downloaded it for further analysis. This code showed me that the voting process makes SOAP calls to retrieve candidates and to place a vote. I also gave me examples of the XML data needed for those soap calls. From here on out, my challenge was to find out how to get voting results instead! I haven't worked with SOAP a lot, but I know there had to be some way of querying the remote end for available procedures and commands. This is where I learned about WSDL, which gave me exactly what I needed: a description of how to request voting results. This needed a little bit more tweaking to the XML, because the candidates were identified by an MD5 hash that needed to be updated as binary data. Darn! Was this close to getting the whole challenge, but was a few minutes too late. 

Learning on the go was hella fun! I got to renew my experience with CURL calls and XML data and learned new things about SOAP. Nice!

Crypto:

  1. I'd figured out the positional encryption scheme for this challenge pretty quickly, as it was clearly based on jumping and looping through the ASCII table, based on a character's position. Despite this, I seem to have had some stupid mistake in my method, because my decrypted text was repeatededly rejected. Again, this close to cracking it, but too little too late. 
  2. We were provided with two enigmatic strings and an encrypted ZIP file. Had no idea how to proceed with this one just yet.
  3. We're provided with Python code for a home-brew crypto, as well as some sample data. Given enough time I'm sure I could have figured out the issue at hand, but in this case ${ENOUGH_TIME} would -GT 2d. So never mind ;)

Cracking crypto never was my strong point ;)

Forensics:

  1. We're given a .CRT certificate for a voting machine, which supposedly is fishing. Making it legible with the OpenSSL command line quickly shows the PvIB CTF flag.
  2. We're given a .DOCX file which was supposed to contain suspicious data. I simply used unzip to extract all the components files of the Word document and searched the various XML contents for the CTF flag. 
  3. We're given a .PNG image that supposedly contains hidden data. One ZSteg install later I have my flag. 

Fun challenges! Not too hard so far.

Misc.:

  1. A PDF file with some hidden data in it. Open the PDF with the viewer on my Kali box made it stand out as a fat blue box. Anko simply grepped for "-i pvib" through the strings-output of the PDF and fared just as well :)
  2. Oooff! I wish I'd had my wife with me! She's great at logical reasoning :) This challenge combined logic (determine whether persons A, B and C are lying or tell the truth), math (Fibonacci and Harshad numbers) and programming (because there's no plausible way of quickly solving the puzzle on paper). Seeing how I can't ever get my ideas straight with the liars/truthers, I skipped this one after about half an hour. 

What a great evening! Better yet, on the way home I managed to get on the Slam! night show and I won a DAB+ radio for our home! :D Awesome-cakes!


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WTF HP? Your M203dn laser printer defaults to open SNMP write?!

2017-10-04 18:13:00

screenshot from the web interface

We've just bought a new laser printer, mostly for my daughter Dana's schoolwork. Installation was a snap as both Windows and MacOS have made it a fool-proof process. MacOS even gave me a button labeled "Visit printer website"! Of course that's gonna pique my interest!

Yup, the HP Laserjet Pro M203dn (as it's fully named) has a wonderfully helpful web interface! By default, there's no username or password, there's no login prompt whatsoever. Just open for everyone to browse. Which is where I stumble upon the screenshot I'm showing above. Of course the SNMP community strings default to public/public. Why not? But who in the seven hells decided to make that SNMP daemon -writable-?! That's asking for trouble!

... aside from the "no username or password on the admin panel" of course. Ye gods! O_o

Oh and of course the certificate on the https web server was not signed by HP's CA. Because of course I wouldn't want to verify that nobody messed with the firmware or the certs on the printer. 

... *checks around* Yep, HP also don't have a bug bounty program. =_=


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EX413 prep: messing with FreeIPA, Apache Directory Studio and MacOS

2017-10-01 21:44:00

Messing with FreeIPA

In preparation for my upcoming EX413 examination, I'm mucking about with FreeIPA

FreeIPA is a easy-to-setup solution for building the basis of your corporate infrastructure on Linux. It includes an LDAP server, it sets up DNS and a CA (certificate authority) and it serves as Kerberos server. Basically, it's a light version of Active Directory, but targeted at Linux networks. Of course Linux can use AD just fine, but if you don't have AD FreeIPA is the next best thing.

IPA has come a long way over the past ten years. It might still not be fully featured, but it certainly allows you to setup a centralized RBAC platform, not unlike the BoKS product range I've worked with. BoKS offers more functionality (like a password safe and the possibility to easily filter SSH subsystems like allowing SCP or SFTP only), but it's also far from free. 

I'm currently doing exactly what EX413 exams want you to be able to do: install a basic FreeIPA environment, with some users and some centralized SUDO rules. It's the latter that was giving me a little bit of a headache, because I had a hard time figuring out the service account to use for the bind action. Sander van Vugt's training video refers to the service account uid=sudo,cn=sysaccounts,dc=etc,dc=ex413,dc=local, which does not appear to exist out of the box. 

This set me off one a foxhunt that lasted 1.5 hours.

Because this is a sandbox environment, I've set up one account as both the SUDO bind user in /etc/sudo-ldap.conf and in the ADS user interface. Both now work swimmingly! I can "sudo -l" as a normal user and I can mess around the LDAP tree from the warmth and comfort of my MacOS desktop :)

EDIT:

Well I'll be a monkey's uncle! That little rascal of a UID=sudo was hiding inside LDAP all along! I guess I really did make a mistake in my initial ldappasswd command :D Well, at least I learned a thing or two!

EDIT 2:

FOUND IT! The OID I showed up top has an "s" too many! I wrote "sysaccountS", while it's supposed to be "sysaccount". Ace! That's going to make life a lot easier during the exam :)  


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